#4 Facts

For now, I’m going to tell facts about octopus, It’s quite many ⊙△⊙


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1st fact: Octopuses have three hearts. For us, humans, we only have 1 heart. But, this creature have 3 hearts! Two of the hearts work exclusively to move blood beyond the animal’s gills, while the third keeps circulation flowing for the organs. The organ heart actually stops beating when the octopus swims, explaining the species’ penchant for crawling rather than swimming, which exhausts them.

2nd fact: Octopus is verrryyy old. The oldest known octopus fossil belongs to an animal that lived some 296 million years ago, during the Carboniferous period,  it’s about 359.2 to 299 million years ago ( ꒪Д꒪)ノ. Harmon Courage describes it as a “flattened cow patty” or a “globular splat,” but a close examination reveals the tell-tale eight arms and two eyes. Researchers aren’t sure, but possibly there’s an ink sack there, too. In other words, long before life on land had progressed beyond puny pre-dinosaur reptiles, octopuses had already established their shape for the millions of years to come.

3rd fact: The plural of Octopus is not “Octopi”.  It is tempting to use “octopi” as the plural of “octopus”, but DON’T DO IT. “Octopi” would be a proper Latin plural, but the word “octopus” has a Greek, rather than a Latin, root. The correct use is to use the word “octopus” to refer to one or several individuals of a single species; use the plural “octopuses” only when talking about multiple species.

4th fact: Aristotle thought octopuses were dumb. In his History of Animals, written in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher wrote that ”The octopus is a stupid creature, for it will approach a man’s hand if it be lowered in the water; but it is neat and thrifty in its habits: that is, it lays up stores in its nest, and, after eating up all that is eatable, it ejects the shells and sheaths of crabs and shell-fish, and the skeletons of little fishes.” After describing a few more quirks of octopus life history–it ejects ink for self-defense, it’s slimy, it can crawl on land–he flippantly signs off, “So much for the mollusca.” However, the big-brained cephalopod, can navigate through mazes, solve problems and remember solutions, and take things apart for fun–they even have distinct personalities.

5th fact: Octopuses have blue blood. To survive in the deep ocean, octopuses evolved a copper rather than iron-based blood called hemocyanin, which turns its blood blue. This copper base is more efficient at transporting oxygen then hemoglobin when water temperature is very low and not much oxygen is around. But this system also causes them to be extremely sensitive to changes in acidity. If the surrounding water’s pH dips too low, octopuses can’t circulate enough oxygen. As such, researchers worry about what will happen to the animals as a result of climate change-induced ocean acidification.

6th fact: Octopus ink doesn’t just hide the animal. The ink also physically harms enemies. It contains a compound called tyrosinase, which, in humans, helps to control the production of the natural pigment melanin. But when sprayed in a predator’s eyes, tyrosinase causes a blinding irritation. It also garbles creatures’ sense of smell and taste. The defensive concoction is so potent, in fact, that octopuses that do not escape their own ink cloud can die.

7th fact: Octopus actually have shells similar to clams and snails. There is a pair of small, spike-shaped structures called stylets inside the octopus’ body, called Cephalopods molluscs, that are a vestigial shell—meaning it really has no function.

8th fact: Octopus frequently lose an arm to predators, but they grow back. 

9th fact: It’s not a good idea to keep Octopus to be a pet. Due to their skills and ability, problem solving to fit through small space, octopus often escaped from the owner.

10th fact: They are about 90 percent muscle. Cephalopods have the biggest noggins among invertebrates. Squid come equipped with big optic lobes, which help them hone in on prey, for example. Plus, these tentancled swimmers have the largest nerve cells of any animals. Squid are also the speediest marine invertebrates, getting up to more than 25 mph using jet propulsion. After water goes into the squid’s body, it squeezes it out with its strong muscles and propels itself. Octopuses have nine brains and they can be trained to do various tasks.

Sources – www.smithsonianmag.com , http://theterramarproject.org/ , www.wired.com, myself ( ゚▽゚)/

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#3 Facts

Hi!! Today I’m going to tell the fact how to survive when a plane wanna crash ( ̄▽ ̄)ノ


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More than 95 percent of the airplane passengers involved in a crash survive, according to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB).

Despite this reassuring statistic, many people adopt a fatalistic attitude toward plane crashes — which can result in a dangerous level of apathy, especially regarding preflight safety briefings.

“One reason passengers do not pay attention to the briefing may be their belief that accidents are not survivable,” according to a 2001 NTSB report.

But not only are plane crashes survivable, there are things you can do to ensure your safety, experts say.

Dress for survival

Before you leave for the airport, dress appropriately. In the event of an emergency, you’ll want to be wearing practical shoes and clothing.

It’s also smart to wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts to protect your skin from flames and sharp objects. According to the NTSB report, 68 percent of passengers killed in plane accidents died as a result of injuries sustained during post-crash fire.

Choose your seat wisely

An oft-cited analysis performed by Popular Mechanics in 2007 found that passengers in the rear of an aircraft were significantly more likely to survive than passengers near the front.

In looking at fatal airplane crashes since 1971 where seating charts were available, the analysis revealed that people sitting behind the wing had a 40 percent greater chance of surviving than passengers in the front of the plane (where first-class seats are generally located).

Of course, all airplane crashes are different, and in a few crashes, passengers in the front of the plane fared better.

Regardless of which section of the plane you’re sitting in, try to sit in or near an exit row. Professor Ed Galea, a fire safety engineer at the University of Greenwich in England, found that most crash survivors moved five rows or fewer before exiting a burning plane.

Galea also determined that aisle seats were somewhat safer than window or center seats, according to ABC News.

Takeoff and landing

Safety experts have found that the most accident-prone times of an airplane flight are the three minutes after takeoff and the eight minutes before landing, ABC News reports.

During these times, it makes sense to keep your shoes on, keep your tray table up and make note of the two nearest exits (both in front of and behind you).

Experts also recommend placing a carry-on item under the seat in front of you. “That gives a block there, so the feet and legs can’t go up under the seat in front,” Corbett said, nothing that broken bones in feet and legs are common in crashes.”

If an impact is imminent, it’s important to remain calm and assume a survival position: If you have a seat in front of you, cross your hands on the seat back and place your forehead on top of your hands.

If you don’t have a seat back facing you, bend forward and hug your knees with your head down. Passengers should also take sharp objects, like pens and keys, out of their pockets — these can stab through skin in an impact.

The 90-second rule

The first 90 seconds after a crash are the most important — if you can stay calm and move out of the plane quickly, your odds of survival are much greater.

Some passengers are in such a state of panic that they can’t unbuckle their seat belts: NTSB reports have found that many crash victims are found in their seats with their seat belts still buckled.

“That’s why it is important to know what to do, even without the orders,” Corbett told WebMD. “Some people sit and wait for orders, and if they don’t hear any, then they sit right through the disaster.”

One reason so many passengers survived the Asiana crash was their ability to exit the airplane quickly.

Gathering luggage and other personal belongings can be a fatal mistake. “You might get stuck on that plane with your luggage,” Corbett told WebMD.

As safe as an escalator

One thing safety experts are quick to emphasize is the remarkable safety record of commercial airlines.

Only one in 1.2 million flights ends up in an accident, according to NTSB statistics. Vast improvements in safety training, in nonflammable aircraft materials and in firefighting equipment have made flying much safer than driving.

The odds of dying in a plane crash are about one in 11 million, according to Discovery, while the odds of dying in an auto accident are about one in 5,000.

“Flying the friendly skies is, I believe, the safest mode of travel,” Corbett told WebMD. “That doesn’t mean we should take it lightly and that we shouldn’t be prepared. Don’t let it scare you. Just have a plan.” -(www.livescience.com)


Just read this and you’ll be safe if you ride a plane and wanted to crash ∩(︶▽︶)∩ But you should do to give you a better shot at making it out alive. Following are five tips that everyone should know before they get on their next flight:

  • After you board, find the two closest exits and count the rows between them and your seat. In the event of darkness or smoke, feel the seats and count until you reach the exit row.
  • Ready for the impact. The official FAA crash position is to extend your arms, cross your hands and place them on the seat in front of you, and then place your head against the back of your hands. Tuck your feet under your seat as far as you can. If you have no seat in front of you, bend your upper body over with your head down and wrap your arms behind your knees. Always stow your carry-on bag under the seat in front of you to block the area.
  • Wear long pants, sleeves and closed-toed shoes. This will help protect you from glass, metal and the elements.
  • If you’re with your family, talk to your children/parents about what to do in the event of an emergency. It’s easier for one parent to help a single child than for both to try to keep everyone together.
  • Pay atte­ntion to the preflight instructions, as all planes are different. When the oxygen mask drops, put it on yourself first before attempting to help someone else. If you fall unconscious, you have no chance of helping your travel mate.­­­

Remember this all so you’ll be safe if you ride a plane!! Well, thank you for reading ^^

 

#2 Facts

So for today, I’m going to post fact about our precious brain ⊂((・▽・))⊃


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It is well established that the brain uses more energy than any other human organ, accounting for up to 20 percent of the body’s total haul. Until now, most scientists believed that it used the bulk of that energy tofuel electrical impulses that neurons employ to communicate with one another. Turns out, though, that is only part of the story.

A new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA indicates that two thirds of the brain’s energy budget is used to help neurons or nerve cells “fire” or send signals. The remaining third, however, is used for what study co-author Wei Chen, a radiologist at the University of Minnesota Medical School, refers to as “housekeeping,” or cell-health maintenance.

Researchers reached their conclusions after imaging the brain with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure its energy production during activity shifts. Chen says the technology, which has been around for three decades and is used to track the products of metabolism in different tissues, could prove instrumental one day in detecting brain defects or to diagnose tumors or precursors of neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s) early.

Chen and his colleagues used MRS specifically to track the rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, the primary source of cellular energy, in rat brains. MRS employs a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine programmed to pick up particular elements in the body—in this case, the three phosphorus atoms in each ATP molecule. Their goal: to determine whether ATP production is linked to brain activity by measuring the energy expended during different levels of consciousness.

Sure enough, ATP levels appeared to vary with brain activity. The team noted that when the lab rats were knocked out, they produced 50 percent fewer ATP molecules than when they were mildly anesthetized.The ATP produced when the brain is inactive, says Chen, seems to go mostly toward cell maintenance, whereas the additional ATP found in the more alert animals fueled other brain functions. He speculates that only a third of the ATP produced in fully awake brains is used for housekeeping functions, leaving the rest for other activities.

“Housekeeping power is important for keeping the brain tissue alive,” Chen says, “and for the many biological processes in the brain,” in addition to neuronal chats. Charged sodium, calcium and potassium atoms (or ions) are continuously pass to through the membrane cells, so that neurons can recharge to fire. ATP supplies the energy required for these ions to traverse cell membranes. Chen says there must be enough energy to maintain a proper ionic balance inside and outside cells; if too many get stuck inside, it can cause swelling, which can damage cells and lead to strokes and other conditions.

He says the team has since used MRS to study energy demands of a cat’s brain, which they said also jumped when the kitty was visually stimulated. –(www.scientificamerican.com)


Brain is really important to us. If our brain loses our blood for 8-10 seconds, we’ll lose our consciousness and while we awake, our brain could light a bulb (10-23 watts). Every part of the brain has it’s own function too. The brain can live for 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen, and then it begins to die. No oxygen for 5 to 10 minutes will result in permanent brain damage ◑.◑ A study of 1 million students in New York showed that students who ate lunches that did not include artificial flavors, preservatives, and dyes did 14% better on IQ tests than students who ate lunches with these additives.

 

 

#1 Facts

Okay, for today I’ll be posting about Fact about animals, because I love animals ♡(ŐωŐ人) Oh and I’m the one that edit the pictures of the facts, I hope you’ll like it (=^▽^=) and this picture credits to me myself.


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It turns out that, for dogs, a chemical in chocolate called theobromine is the source of the problem. Theobromine is similar to caffeine. Theobromine is toxic to a dog when it ingests between 100 and 150 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

Different types of chocolate contain different amounts of theobromine: It would take 20 ounces of milk chocolate to kill a 20-pound dog, but only 2 ounces of baker’s chocolate or 6 ounces of semisweet chocolate. It is not that hard for a dog to get into something like an Eater basket full of chocolate eggs and bunnies and gobble up a pound or two of chocolate. If the dog is small, that could be deadly.

It turns out that chocolate poisoning is actually not as unusual as it sounds. For a human being, caffeine is toxic at levels of 150 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. That’s the same as for dogs! Humans generally weigh a lot more than dogs, but small children can get into trouble with caffeine or chocolate if they consume too much of it. Infants are especially vulnerable because they don’t eliminate caffeine from the bloodesteam nearly as quickly as adults.- (www.animals.howstuffworks.com)


If you have a dog at home, please DON’T EVER FEED THEM WITH CHOCOLATE. Chocolate is poisonous to dogs; however, the hazard of chocolate to your dog depends on the type of chocolate, the amount consumed and your dog’s size and also, different chocolate types have different theobromine levels. Cocoa, cooking chocolate and dark chocolate contain the highest levels, while milk chocolate and white chocolate have the lowest. But still even the chocolate contains the lowest theobromine levels, don’t feed them with it!